As you do so, your dog salivates. You would be most likely to use operant conditioning to teach a dog to: A child's fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n): In Pavlov's original experiment with dogs, the meat served as a(n): As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor's cat wandered over. Rattling the box is a(n) ________; your dog's salivation is a(n) ________. Your behavior in this situation typifies that associated with which schedule of reinforcement? Her behavior caused you to cry. What did Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrate in classical conditioning? Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by: biological predispositions. In Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste-aversion learning, rats learned to associate: chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward. To examine this, Garcia put together a study in which three groups of rats were given sweetened water followed by either no radiation, mild radiation, or strong radiation. A response is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is acquired under conditions of: continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement. Taste Aversion. Psychologists Study Taste Aversion. A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. with just the flavour cue. Taste-aversion learning occurs when an organism demonstrates a pronounced decrease in consumption of a food or liquid after experiencing that substance prior to an illness episode. Your mother (who has a terrible fear of animals) screamed and snatched you into her arms. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by: The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by: Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats. Classical conditioning experiments by Rescorla and Wagner demonstrate that an important factor in conditioning is: The predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. apomorphine (Garcia & Ervin, 1968; Revusky & Garcia, 1970). E) latent learning. Because Mr. Baron demonstrates appreciation only for very good classroom answers, his students have stopped participating in class. Their good performance demonstrates: Megan fails to see any connection between how hard she works and the size of her annual pay raises. You teach your dog to fetch the paper by giving him a cookie each time he does so. This best illustrates: The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by: John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of: In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. But Garcia was showing something that very much like that could happen, if one chose the right CS-UCS combination. Paul is paid $1.00 for every five calls he makes, while Michael is paid $1.00 for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Consequently, she puts little effort into her job, even though she really wants a big raise. receiving an approving nod from the boss for a job well done. Regarding the impact of watching television violence on children, most researchers believe that: watching violence on television leads to aggressive behavior. B)The studies confirmed the applicability of classical conditioning in species other than canines. Garcia and Koelling (1966) Ss. 1 week of habituation to drinking plain water in the box and pre-tests “bright-noisy” water (flashing light and clicks when the spout was licked) and “tasty” water (with flavours added). One 20-min session every These phenomena had a huge impact on discussions of biological constraints on learning. Garcia and his colleagues confirmed another atypical characteristic of taste aversion learning when they showed that rats given saccharin to drink followed by drug-induced illness (vomiting caused by an injection of apomorphine) acquired an aversion to the saccharin solution even when the injection was delayed by as long as 75 minutes after consumption of saccharin. Reggie's mother tells him that he can watch TV after he cleans his room. c) extrinsic motivation. Her children will probably learn to: tell others it is important to use seat belts but rarely use them themselves. Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ________ schedule. During a typical morning, Colin checks the clock frequently before being reinforced with confirmation that the time for his regularly scheduled lunch break has arrived. On the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer. On an intermittent reinforcement schedule, reinforcement is given: The desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment involves: Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit: It's easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a food reward. In 1976, we published the first of three bibliographies on conditioned taste aversion learning. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning. Garcia and Koelling's taste-aversion studies. a small box with a drinking spout, in which every lick of the (True Answer )Correct environmental factors. This is because the schedule of exams is reinforcing studying according to which schedule? operant conditioning; classical conditioning. Mr. Baron most clearly needs to be informed of the value of. The conditioned aversion was formed with a single pairing of the saccharin taste with illness, even though they were separated by a full 30 minutes. intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation. important in both classical and operant conditioning. Shaping is a(n) ________ technique for ________ a behavior. 144.Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by A) cognitive processes. Which of the following statements concerning reinforcement is correct? Then Training: e.g with lithium. Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with: A person adhering to the cognitive perspective would be likely to emphasize that classical conditioning depends on: an organism's expectation that a US will follow a CS. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. Back to - Phenomena showing that stimulus-pairing (contiguity) is not the only factor in Pavlovian conditioning. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone: Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________. Nancy's behavior was motivated by ________, Jack's by ________. Leon will probably study the most just before an exam and the least just after an exam. Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of: After pigs learned to pick up and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank, the pigs subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snouts. In Pavlov’s original experiment with dogs, salivation to meat was the 14. … The Searchable Bibliographic Database of CTA records dates to 1940. Garcia and Koelling noticed the laboratory rats started to avoid drinking the water from plastic bottles in the radiation chambers. Nikki has learned to expect the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lightning. chloride (which they cannot distinguish from salty water), with Psychology. You now have a fear of cats. Blinking to the tone presented without an air puff is a(n): The occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that during extinction: In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the taste of food was a(n): Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a(n): The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies of: The "psychic secretions" that Pavlov initially considered an annoyance were: In Pavlov's original experiment with dogs, salivation to meat was the: Experiments on taste-aversion learning demonstrate that: for the conditioning of certain stimuli, the US need not immediately follow the CS. Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained by (from book) a. cognitive processes b. biological predispositions c. … The signal or CS is the taste of a food. Mason's running habit is maintained by a ________ reinforcer. She is using a procedure known as: In Pavlov's experiments, the dog's salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was a(n): Which of the following is an unconditioned response? Paul and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste aversion in rats demonstrated that classical conditioning is constrained: biological predispositions. These were The electric shock is a(n): As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor's cat wandered over. Garcia proposed that the sweetened water had become noxious due to the nausea inducing effects of the radiation. Four-year-old Della asks her mother for a special treat every time they go to the grocery store. C) a fixed-interval reinforcement schedule. were delayed for longer, to produce a decline in drinking of the B) biological predispositions. Resistance to extinction is most strongly encouraged by ________ reinforcement. Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is traditionally viewed as an instance of Pavlovian conditioning. Garcia and his colleagues conducted a series of studies on conditioned taste aversion. D) continuous reinforcement. It can be expected that: May-ling will develop an aversion to the taste of a cheeseburger and french fries. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace's surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ________ schedule. Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. 1 week of habituation to drinking plain water in the box and pre-tests According to the text, learning involves: Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. George registered because he heard it was an easy course that would boost his grade-point average. Children are especially likely to behave aggressively after viewing TV violence in which an attractive person commits: justified violence that causes no visible pain or harm. Learning associations between one's own behavior and resulting events is to ________ as learning associations between events one doesn't control is to ________. d) … Incorrect continuous reinforcement. A few hours later she became ill. Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 25,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ________ schedule of reinforcement. This is an example of: If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. This effect is known as taste aversion, which has brought up many questions about classical conditioning.It was Garcia and Koelling (1966) who studied the level of conditioning in rats using two conditioned stimulus (CS), an audiovisual stimulus and a salty flavor added to drinking water. spout could be counted. In Pavlov's studies of classical conditioning of a dog's salivary responses, spontaneous recovery occurred: when the CS was reintroduced following extinction of the CR and a rest period. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a(n) ________ perspective. In this case, Colin's behavior is reinforced on a ________ schedule. Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule. Leon's psychology instructor has scheduled an exam every third week of the term. Answer. 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Though she really wants a big raise their good performance demonstrates: Megan fails to see any between! Aversive effects following statements concerning reinforcement is correct huge impact on discussions of biological constraints on..

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